On this 17th
Anniversary of the Founding of Rome, the 31st day of Julius MMIV,
the Senate and People of Rome do hereby ratify the revisions to
this, our Mos Maiorum.
Passed Unanimously, 7/31/2004
Do you want to BE a
Roman Gladiator? Legionary? Centurion? General? Senator? We've been living
your dream for years!
Roman might was made
legendary by the valor of her glorious Legions. Sandaled feet marched to
the clash of arms through a river of blood. The Legions carved out Rome’s
expanding dominion through battle and butchery, from Britain to Egypt.
From a patchwork of conquests, the diverse nations and cultures of three
continents were transformed into one world, one Empire!
Do you ever wish you
could have made history, earning glory in Rome wars? Now's your chance to
do it! The Legions still expand the Empire's dominions every weekend. We
share a fascination with history and get to enjoy it as a fast-paced,
action packed sport! The Washington, D.C. Metropolitan area boasts a wide
variety of medieval combat organizations, including Dagorhir, the SCA, and
Markland. Rome has enjoyed participation in local medievalist combat
circuits since 1987, and we welcome you to join our fun. If this sounds
like your kind of fun, Rome wants you!
understood how to conquer and reign. Using the principles of war that
established the Roman Empire as supreme, we have duplicated their success.
We are always recruiting, building new Legions to share our peerless
glory. We offer numerous advantages to people who share our interest. We
will train you to use competitive combat techniques. We will help you
construct armor and weapons that will help ensure your superiority on the
fields of battle. You'll enjoy the exhilaration of experiencing a safe
medieval combat simulation with a winning team. In return, Rome expects
your regular participation as a combatant at our events, and your devoted
adherence to our high standards of honor, sportsmanship, and loyalty.
Rome is about fun
and teamwork, using organization to achieve success. We've achieved
national fame and glory in the Dagorhir Battle Game Association and in the
Society for Creative Anachronism. Romans strive to be the best of friends,
and the most challenging of opponents. We don’t believe in having
"enemies," being of the opinion that all "medievalists" share a common
interest that should unite us. But friendly competition has its place on
the battlefield, where glory is earned. Whether your interests lie in
joining us as a citizen of Rome, fighting with us at Ragnarok or Pennsic,
or even fighting against us in the medievalist societies we recommend,
please contact us. We welcome all who share our interest in the glory and
majesty that was (and is) Rome.
Ave Legions of Rome!
Becoming a Roman may
seem overwhelming to the uninitiated. However, while nothing truly great
is ever easy, it is not that hard to get started out on the Roman road.
And as we all know, all roads lead to Rome.
Rome is first and
foremost a military organization. We focus on medieval style, full-contact
mock combat. An individual does not really need that much to get started.
The minimum requirements are:
A red tunic with a belt (see
A short sword (see
A desire to be a Roman!
Attendance at a Roman event (see the
Schedule on this site for Roman events)
It may seem
overwhelming to join us at a battle with 100 people on the field or a war
with 3,000 people on the field. Practices are a great, low-key way to
meet Rome and learn to do what Rome does best, fight!
practices each week, weather providing. Most of our membership range from
Northern Virginia to Baltimore, so we are spread far enough to warrant
multiple practices. A local practice will include people within a 30
minute driving distance.
usually in the evening, on a weeknight and last for 2-3 hours. Garb
(costuming) and armor are not worn or used at practices. Loaner weapons
are available for newcomers, and veterans will be there to train you and
show you how to get equipped. Check the website under Schedule for
practice times and locations.
Starting out is easy, and we’ll help you along the way. This rest of this
document details what is expected from every Roman. We have all lived up
to those expectations for years. Many of us strive to surpass them. That’s
what that sets us apart and makes us great. We act together for the dream
of our great Roman State. Romans live the dream and we invite you to
share that dream with us. There is truly nothing better.
So, you want to be a
Roman? While various requirements are detailed throughout this book, they
are consolidated them here for easy reference.
A Roman Citizen
Camp with Rome's
Legions at Wars we attend.
Receive a hard copy
of the Mos Maiorum and all subsequent updates;
periodical, detailing Roman-related events and highlights, war
registration information, and recognition of the efforts and
contributions of citizens throughout the empire;
assistance, guidance and/or reference materials constructing weapons,
armor, and equipment, or in finding local medieval combat societies,
Roman reenactment groups, and live-action role-playing games;
character identity and social status documented as a member of the
People of Rome, and a citizen of the Roman Empire.
Have the offer of
citizenship extended to them by the Imperator of Rome. This supersedes
all other requirements.
To enlist in our
glorious Roman Legions as a soldier, you must:
Fight with Rome at
any battles or Wars we attend;
Fill out the
Citizen Data Sheet provided to you at your first event;
Attend at least six
months of battles as a Petitioning Auxiliary (see Auxiliary) or at least
two full Wars;
Take and follow the
military oath (see Sacramentum);
Agree to and sign
the Roman Contract of Citizenship;
Own and wear a red
tunic (see Clothing);
Paint the Roman
shield symbol on your shield if/when you have one;
adhere to the laws set down by the Senate and People of Rome (see
Commander willing to accept you into his Legion.
service is a long-term commitment. Rome has a lot to offer a new recruit.
Rome is the best unit you will ever have the privilege to join. But
understand that your wish to join must be more for Rome's greater glory
than for your own. Referring to the first martial law of the Lex Romana:
Rome will not be taken advantage of.
To become a private
civilian of the Roman Empire, you must:
Fill out the
Citizen Data Sheet provided to you at your first event;
adhere to the civil laws set down by the Senate and People of Rome (see
Own a Roman
costume and wear it at any events you attend in your non-combatant
capacity (see Clothing);
Take and follow the
military oath (see Sacramentum).
Civilians have no
need for, or access to, Roman military secrets. Neither are they bound by
Roman martial laws. Our focus is obviously military, but civilians
contribute significantly to Rome and will earn recognition for their
Civilians may not
hold elected office, Rome is a military state. However, they may be
appointed by a magistrate or serve on a committee.
We've often met fighters with Roman personas and armor at
Pennsic and other wars we attend. You are welcome to fight with us on a
temporary basis. The more the merrier! We only require that you adhere to
our standards of honor and sportsmanship while fighting in our ranks. We
all want to be part of something greater, and what could be greater than
ON THE QUALITIES OF A GOOD CITIZEN
We get asked quite often which are the qualities that Rome looks for in
a petitioning auxiliary. This is understandable, given that Rome always
boasts several new and petitioning citizens. Rome does not accept, or
want, everyone. This is not to intimidate potential new citizens. It is
designed to protect Rome by ensuring Roman superiority. The following
pages should be helpful in defining those desirable characteristics.
Let me begin by
explaining the process. You tell a Roman that you wish to petition for
citizenship, that you want to join Rome. Generally this person will be a
Legion Commander or Dominus. Word of your intentions will be spread among
all Officers, and you will be watched. This process is one we regard as
sacred, though we deal with it very informally amongst ourselves. Each
petitioner is a separate case. It is the responsibility of your Legion
Commander to screen you first. To some extent, you have passed their test
by the fact of your presence. If you embarrass them on the field, chances
are they won't even bring you back. After several events, I will ask each
Officer his opinion on your merits, both good and bad. We have an
expression among ourselves, that someone either is or is not "Roman
material." Based on the Commanders' statements (which will have NO
political basis) and Dominus' own opinions, a judgment will be made based
on what is best for Rome. This no doubt will eventually infuriate someone
who is trying to assemble a Legion. Numbers are beneficial if used well,
but numbers alone mean nothing. Rome has defeated as much as four times
our number. Your auxiliary status will last at least six months (or the
duration of two wars depending on the judgment of the Imperator). This is
not intended to discourage you. This allows Rome's Officers ample time to
review and assess your worth. I shall go on to explain those
characteristics that define Roman material.
First and foremost: Loyalty. Loyalty to Rome, loyalty to the Imperator,
loyalty to your Legion Commander. The bottom line is can you be trusted?
If not, we’re wasting each other’s time. Roman greatness is based on
sacrifice. The sacrifice of some free will for the betterment of the group
as a whole. This is a major facet of the loyalty that is an ultimate
prerequisite expected of every citizen, petitioning or otherwise.
Secondly: Dedication. You must ask of yourself, "Am I in this for
the long haul?" I'll be asking it of you. Are you going to come out
and fight regularly for at least a year or two? If not, you're a waste of
time. We want you out at least once a month. There are lots of old Romans
who, because of the many responsibilities that tend to weigh us down
increasingly with age, are unable to attend more than a few times a year.
This is all right. They've put in their time, and Rome has benefited
greatly over the years because of their efforts. Rome expects the same
participation from you, at least initially. There are a lot of rewards,
granted, and as a citizen you're entitled to your full share of armor,
training, experience, and glory. But you must be worth it. Along with
dedication is your adaptability and willingness to go with the army. If
Rome can only expect your support in a single organization, fight with us
as a long-term auxiliary. Each medieval society at best represents one
third of our campaigning. Don't be a peasant afraid of journeying too far
from home. Lastly, understand this: your agreement to join Rome is a
permanent one. Not for one year or two years, but forever. Every time you
step on to a battlefield for the remainder of your life, you are a Roman.
(It eludes me why anyone should wish to be otherwise.) The Roman Empire is
not a fad or temporary phenomenon. In various forms it has existed for
over ten years. I always emphasize this with all the gravity I can muster:
do NOT make this decision lightly.
Thirdly: Attitude. This is an abstract that is difficult to describe,
but we all have a feeling for it and it is an important consideration. Do
you fit in? Are you a natural fighter and conqueror, or a geek who just
doesn't want to lose? Do you want to be a Roman? We want winners, not
whiners. We are all sick of the people who want to be part of the best
unit in medievalism, but don't want to follow any of the tenants we set
down or integrate themselves as a Roman. "I don't wanna wear a red
tunic", "You can't tell me what to do", "Dominus is a
jerk", "I wanna fight Florentine", "I'm a skirmisher,
I don't wanna fight on the line", "Harn doesn't like me."
WHY are you even here? The answers to these questions are: "You
will", "We can", "I'm not", "You
can't", "You will", and "No, he probably
doesn't." Do you think that Rome is great by accident? No, it is by
calculated design that Rome is great. If you think you can do better I
welcome you to try. If your presence among us weakens us, we don't want
you. The only exceptions to this are raw, green recruits who have never
fought. You are an investment in the future of the Roman Empire. In fact,
your personal fighting ability is barely a consideration beyond what rank
you will begin as when/if you are enfranchised as a citizen. It is your
potential that concerns us. If you are not a good fighter when you enlist,
you will be. Attitude is far more important. We want people who will
contribute and not detract from the group. We want people who want to win,
but will not break the rules in order to do so. We want people who will
put Rome's best interests ahead of their own medievalist career. We want
people who will preserve and protect our image, honor, reputation, and
dignity by the way they deal with outsiders and present themselves
internally and externally. We want people who will take the time and
energy into bettering and equipping themselves. The Roman way. Why be an
exception to the very things that make us great?
Fourthly, and this is tied directly to the third: Intent. I will ask
you WHY you want to join. Perhaps I should not give this one away, but the
biggest danger sign is when the response is, "For the armor?"
"Let's see how you do over the next six months," will be my
likeliest response. Rome's assistance, as stated in the sacred lex Romana
Martial Law number I, is not based on altruism. Your greatness makes Rome
great. You should be joining as much for Rome as for yourself. If you
don't want to follow ALL of Rome's laws and guidelines, fight with us as
an auxiliary forever. That's fine. If you leave, or start your own
country, there is no violation, no betrayal. We're still happy friends. If
things don't work out, return at your leisure. You won't enjoy the
benefits of citizenship, but there is nothing worse than being an
ex-citizen. Status as a Roman auxiliary still puts you far ahead of
the rabble, and you get to fight with Rome rather than against. It's a
happy alternative. Think about it. If this is your choice, we'll
completely respect your honesty and your decision.
Lastly: have you read the Mos Maiorum?
Do you even know what you are agreeing to? If not, ask me for a copy. I
never leave home without it. If you haven't gone over it in detail, you
have NO business agreeing to join. It outlines the very basis of our
entire organization and the policies that define us. If you don't fully
understand what Rome is about, how can you know whether you will enjoy
yourself as a citizen of Rome? And if you don't enjoy yourself, how can we
know that you will stay? Your petitioning period is as much an opportunity
for you to try Rome out as it is for us to assess your worthiness. You may
retract your petition at any time with no hard feelings.
It must be emphasized that your agreement to join Rome is between you
and the Imperator, Senate, and People of Rome. Not your character, not
your medieval persona, but YOU agree to join! The military oath, or
Sacramentum, applies to you personally. Roman citizenship is bestowed
along with Rome's trust in you. If you foreswear your oath or betray
Rome's trust, you invite harsh penalties for your actions. Joining Rome is
PERMANENT. We will welcome you, help you, include you, and give you many
opportunities to prove yourself. But consider your decision carefully.
Further, Rome does not recognize such fantasy organization conventions as
multiple characters. Your rank and status are YOURS, regardless of the
character your portray on a given day.
Rome is growing at a drastic rate. Being the best affords us the luxury
of being able to pick and choose, and we must be careful if we are to
ensure lasting Roman domination. But we do want you to be a Roman if it is
what you truly want. To truly want it, and to adhere to the guidelines and
standards we set, is what it really takes. Ask yourself honestly. Most
people, if honest, would hesitate to enter into such a binding commitment.
In fact I tend to distrust those who make the decision with alarming ease.
Rome transcends friendship. Rome is peerless. Rome is eternal. Rome is a
dream built on battle and butchery, on victories and triumphs. Being a
Roman means learning to be a soldier rather than a mere warrior. Being a
Roman means being a professional rather than an amateur. Being a Roman
means tying your fate forever to Rome's. Many feel such
"limitations" a heavy and inescapable burden. If you feel this
way, you are not Roman material. But for the truly dedicated
classical/medieval combat enthusiast, Rome is the best decision you will
-Allaricus Xirinius Dominus Imperator
Commentaries III, December 10, 1995
In the Consulship of Amroth Valerius Baculus and Tobias Deloricus
"The clothes make the man." This cliché is probably as old
as Rome herself. However, in medieval combat it is all too true. People
equate superior costuming with veteran status. And not only does having a
good costume make you appear more formidable, but it also makes the unit
altogether more impressive. Nothing is more imposing than the truly
awesome spectacle of several Legions maneuvering in unison, clad in red
tunics and steel. This image itself goes a long way towards defeating our
enemies psychologically. Anyone participating with Rome must have a
costume by their third battle or they will not be allowed to fight with
The bare minimum costuming required of a Roman or petitioning auxiliary
is a red wool or cotton tunic (to be worn over any under tunics). Some
other costume requirements/restrictions are based on social status or
rank. Wearing a red tunic helps ensure
that your fellow Romans can recognize you by your apparel at a glance. Romans in combat tend
to be inordinately paranoid. Many are our auxiliaries and raw legionaries
who have been slaughtered for wearing a brown tunic within striking range
of their fellows. A Roman in red is also far likelier to get assistance in
dire need than some nobody in non-descript colors.
In the Roman Handbook Costuming chapter are several pages with accurate
depictions of Roman military uniforms. This is exactly the kind of
authenticity we like to see reflected in each Roman's accessories.
Remember that costuming is an essential prerequisite for military rank. An advantage Rome enjoys is the
extraordinary wealth of documentation and reference material. Any local
library will have literally volumes of information available to you. For
civilian costuming, feel free to accessorize with the clothing of the many
nationalities that composed the empire. However, I do consider it an
expression of national pride to don Roman garb.
Warning: Unless you are a Patrician,
Equestrian, or Legion Commander
(see Nobles and Command Ranks) you should have NO PURPLE in your costume
at all. There are few costume limitations we insist upon. If you are among
the above three mentioned, you should have a purple stripe of the
appropriate width running down your tunic or cape regardless of your
costume style or character nationality. Another major restriction is that if you are
not of Centurion rank or more, you may have NO BRASS in your armor aside
from such fittings as hinges, rivets, and buckles. Military uniform and
dress requirements will be enforced regardless of status.
One crucial element of the Roman costume is a toga. I would definitely
like every Roman to have one. We have held toga parties and will again in
the future. There may be Senate meetings or other occasions where you
should wear one. A toga was the exclusive privilege of the Roman citizen.
For footwear, we highly recommend combat or hiking boots. They are not
by definition "period", but they do carry martial associations
and Rome did have similar models. Many combatants use engineer boots or
high-top moccasins. These lack both the traction and ankle support to
function adequately in combat. The same is true of sandals, unfortunately.
Nice costume apparel, but dangerous in combat.
Rome will be happy to assist and advise you with all your costume and
armor construction needs. You have only to ask.
(Our Roman Oath)
I swear by Jupiter Optimus Maximus and by any other god I may hold in
my heart to be holy, and by the majesty of the Imperator and by the Senate
of Rome, which next to our gods should be loved and worshipped by the
human race. I, swear to perform with enthusiasm whatever the Imperator and
my Legion commander should command, follow all laws set forth by the
Senate of Rome, never to desert, and not to shrink from death on behalf of
the Roman State.
Signature of witness:
Signature of Imperator:
SCHEDVLES, ATTENDANCE, AND ACTIVE STATVS
Rome's officially scheduled campaigns
are published and distributed months ahead of time. This schedule is
available on the Roman website, and through periodicals such as the
Commentaries. Official events include battles and even practices, of which
there is typically one event per month. The Senate may also give certain
events special recognition under Roman law, and these are typically the
Rome attends two major Wars every year. One is the SCA’s "Pennsic," held
every August in Pennsylvania. The other is Dagorhir’s "Ragnarok," held
every June in Ohio. All citizens will receive the necessary registration
information for these wars through Roman periodicals.
Every day of battle in which Rome participates at a War counts separately
towards each soldier’s annual attendance. That is, each soldier’s day of
battle at a War will be tallied with his/her annual total as if that day
were a single event. A “full” War is defined as at least five days of
attendance at the event and taking the field with Rome for at least four
of those days.
Attendance is vital to Rome's continued greatness, and is a responsibility
we all accept. It is our responsibility to each other, to our respective
commanders, and to Rome. Each Officer rank requires a minimum attendance
every year, and regular attendance is a consideration for citizenship and
promotions. At the end of every year, each Roman's attendance is tallied
against Rome's annual total.
Every Roman is expected to try and maintain "active" status. To be
considered active, our members must attend an event once monthly. Most
active Romans attend all or nearly all the Roman battle events. Non-battle
events do not count towards active status. A Senator must remain active to
maintain their position on the Senatorial Rolls, and a Magistrate must
remain active or relinquish their position. Likewise, a Legion Commander
must keep his Legion active, or disband his Legion. Regular battle
attendance is important to Rome's preeminence.
The lex Arthola Claudia states that refereeing may only count
towards a citizen's active status once every six months.
The lex Valeria Suetonia
states that Roman citizens residing in Tartarus Invictus are allowed to
miss two battles per annum and still maintain active status. This does not
apply to Magistrates in office.
Below are the weapon choices
|I. Sword and shield (gladius
II. Spear (quiris)
III. Bow and arrows (arcus et sagittae)
I. Javelin (pilum)
Get used to this concept: the shield wall is everything. If you do not
wish to be a shieldman, choose the other weapons that can most readily
support the shield wall. Well placed spearmen and archers, with the wall's
protection, can both fend off flanking attacks and decimate an attacking
Rome takes a very pragmatic approach to warfare. We've been at it a long
time and we like to win. There are no Romans even allowed to even use a
two-handed sword. Why? Because that soldier has no defense and must expose
himself physically to attack with his/her limited reach. The same is more
true of those fantasy novel enthusiasts who dream romantically of fighting
with two swords. They are easy pickings for spearmen and archers. Limited
combat effectiveness among our people weakens the Legions as a whole. If
you insist on weakening your group, please go fight with the rabble; we'll
pick you off with javelins before we engage your shieldmen.
Does this sound harsh? A novice will get trounced without the teamwork we
emphasize coupled with the most effective and high-tech weaponry
available. If you get trounced, holes can be made in the shield wall that
can spell death for your fellow Romans. In recruiting you, we accept this
risk. But we insist that you weaken the group as little as possible.
Please be reminded that Rome's purpose lies
in our ancient martial tradition of war! When Rome's Legions camp, it is a
necessity brought about by our participation in a war. Everyone sharing
space in Rome's camp is expected to contribute to the war effort, whether
they are fighting or not. We recognize that your time is a vacation of
sorts. But understand that anyone who is not helping the war effort is
hindering it, and Rome's greatness is the culmination of our combined
efforts on her behalf.
Since many of you will one day rise to a command position, this must be
emphasized concerning the issuing of orders. When you are not in a battle
situation, maintain cordiality with your fellow Romans. A good example is
a campout. It is always better to say "Help me do this" than it is to just
say "Do this". And say "Please". It's not usually in character. But while
the game isn't real, the people are. We're all friends who are in this for
fun, and dissension in the ranks is never good. However, in battle you
should yell (or roar) your orders. And expect your leaders to roar orders
at you. Battle commands are imperative and must be followed immediately.
While mistakes can occur, cooperation on a group level reduces casualties
and helps ensure decisive victories for Rome.
Before moving on to defining our structure,
a mention must be made of our salute. Hailing your superiors is a
prerequisite to all promotions. If you have no respect for higher ranks,
you don't have the right to be among them. Always return a salute when it
has been given to you. Among outsiders it will make us appear sharp and
polished. The salute begins by placing your right (or weapon hand) fist to
your breast. Then snap it forward and up at a roughly 70 degree angle,
hand open and palm facing down. (This salute originated among the legions
of Rome, not with the Nazis.) Say "Ave!" (Pronounced AH-Vay).
Our tactical units
are called “Legions.” Each Legion is composed of five Romans. Each Legion
is commanded by a Tribune, Legate, Count or Duke. His second in command is
called the "Primus Pilus." This office should be filled by either a
Centurion or the highest ranking officer available. The remaining three
are referred to generically as Legionaries. In a crack Legion, all three
may be Centurions. However, for our purposes here they shall be termed
Legionaries. It is the responsibility of these Legionaries to keep up with
their Commander. It is the Primus Pilus' responsibility to see to it that
the Legionaries do remain with their Commander. It is the Legion
Commander's responsibility to see to it that the Legion's task or military
objective is accomplished. Whether this consists of building a fort wall,
scouting, guarding, or leading a complex feint (fake-out) against an enemy
flank, it is the commander's responsibility to see that it is
One word to the
wise: DO NOT PLAY HERO. Teamwork and concerted effort win battles, not
martyrdom. Nothing is more ludicrous than a single man charging his
enemies' line. If your legion is decimated, get with another. A
coordinated assault should always be successful. Obey orders from your
commander. Commanders - NEVER run off on your own without orders or
permission. A divided force is a weak force. Division is only good if you
want to give an impression of weakness. So, Commanders, see to it that if
the Imperator dies you keep Rome's forces together in a group rather than
splitting into rabble. Keep that group in motion so that it is not
surrounded or picked off.
CREATING A LEGION
A Senator or
Centurion must first recruit four additional members to start their
five-man Legion. This allows Romans the luxury of choosing their Legion
commanders, and ensures they get to fight with their friends. It is the
commander's responsibility to train their soldiers to be proficient with
his/her weapon(s) of choice, equip and muster his Legion. A commander must
train their Legion how to make weapons, garb, and armor. A commander must
instruct their Legion in the basics of characterization. The Legion
members are responsible for obeying their commander's orders and remaining
by his or her side in battle
Romans do not play
dirty with each other, so we’ve established a certain Legion building
etiquette. For instance, it’s considered proper form to fill your position
before requesting a transfer from a Legion. Moreover, if a Senator is
recruiting his friends into an existing Legion, he or she should request
permission from his commander immediately if he intends to branch off into
a Legion of his own. Expansion is good; we don’t back-stab our countrymen.
If you can recruit but feel too inexperienced for a command position, get
with a Centurion and form a Legion under him. If you don't have the time
or experience, you won't be effective. Make a deal with someone who does
have the time and experience. Either command or be second-in-command of
the Legion you have assembled. But if you do help someone else rise to
command, don't bide your time until you feel inspired to displace them.
Poor treatment of your commander dishonors Rome. If you are unhappy in a
Legion, arrange (with your Commander's permission) for a transfer. You may
be able to arrange a trade between Legions that will satisfy both
Commanders. Lastly, Rome will NOT be a nice, comfortable place to assemble
your own unit as a Legion before breaking off on your own. So make your
decisions. This structure is designed to maintain Rome's strength and
provide us a militaristic image to intimidate our opponents. Don't take
advantage of it. That weakens Rome and incurs the displeasure of the
If a Legion fails to
keep at least four active members on its rosters for a period of eight
consecutive weeks the Legion will lose its active status. The Legion
number will be retired until the Legion commander can reform his Legion.
The Legion commander retains full rights to his Legion number, and may
give permission for another Legion commander to take up his old Legion
number. Also, all honors and awards will remain with the Legion in
The following pages
outline our military structure and requirements of rank. There are several
reasons behind our rank structure, beyond the fact that it maintains field
discipline. The first and foremost is to acknowledge and reward Romans who
contribute time and effort to attending battles, improving their
capabilities, and expanding the unit through recruitment. Secondly, it
ensures that those with the most experience and ability are in undisputed
command when leaders fall.
AUXILIARY or ALAE Non-citizens. This term will refer generically to:
- Probatii - Probationary recruits petitioning for Roman citizenship.
- Those who owe allegiances or military obligations outside the Empire.
- Mercenaries who fight for Rome, if and when. (Rome's policy is
usually "why bother with mercenaries?")
- All non-citizen teammates in general.
To join us temporarily as an Auxiliary, requires only our willingness
to accept you on a temporary basis. This is generally dictated by the
circumstances. For instance, if you are a well equipped, veteran fighter
we will almost always accept you. But if you have little experience or
equipment, and Rome is fielding several raw recruits, we would generally
prefer you join the other side unless we require sheer numbers. A powerful
veteran who lends Rome military assistance may be awarded the title of
"Friend and Ally of the Roman People". This honor renders the
veteran a right to fight with Rome at any time. It also enables them to
assemble and command Auxiliary Legions.
Auxiliaries are protected under Roman
Law, which they are expected to learn and follow.
Auxiliaries receive loaner armor only after true Roman citizens get first
pick. While this appears inequitable, you enjoy the luxury of fighting
with (rather than against) Rome. This means Rome reserves the right to
make such decisions as which Legion you will be assigned to and where you
Only Probatii (auxiliaries petitioning
for citizenship) and citizens count toward the active five soldiers
required for a Legion complement. All Probatii must own and wear a red
tunic. Though you fight for Rome, you will not receive awards or
promotions. A Probati must fight as an auxiliary for at least six months
and/or two full Wars before the Imperator offers citizenship. At this time
the Probati is required to make a decision as to his/her permanent
allegiance to Rome. If he/she elects not to join Rome, they may still
fight with us (depending on the circumstances listed above), but will not
get the choice again. Why? Rome wants dedicated soldiers who believe in
her, not the typical hangers-on who drift between popular and powerful
Historically, the alae were composed of barbaric allies from subject
states who were used to soften up enemy lines and slow charges. You should
consider yourself fortunate to have Rome's support. An auxiliary owes us no
long-term allegiance. The auxiliary's biggest advantage lies in not
having to face Rome on the field of battle.
If/when citizenship is conferred upon a Probati, he or she will be
assigned a rank according to their experience, ability and equipment.
Recruits will generally be accorded the following rank until they have
demonstrated dedication, loyalty, and ability:
LEGIONARY You are a Roman citizen! Welcome to the Legions! Into this
- Those who are new to combat and require both training and equipment.
- Those who do not attend more than five battles a year.
- The Legionary will be responsible for:
- Obeying his commander's orders.
- Remaining by his commander's side in battle.
His Commander, in return for service, must train the Legionary:
- To be proficient with his/her weapon(s) of choice.
- How to make weapons, garb, and armor.
- How to characterize at least sufficiently.
The Legionary was the original
starting rank for any Roman citizen. This has changed for a number of
reasons. No one gets enfranchised as a Roman citizen without spending a
considerable time with us as a Probati. A Probati must prove him/herself
worthy. By the time they have, they are usually a hardened veteran,
because they've spent at least six months attending battles/practices
every month and/or two Wars. Most Legionaries these days are actually
worthy fighters, Roman veterans of many campaigns who no longer have time
to fight on a regular basis. There's no shame in being a Legionary. There
is always room for a Roman in the Legions, and we always welcome our old
veterans participation, regardless of its frequency.
If you feel that a promotion is overdue, speak with your commander.
Occasionally, an individual may be overlooked, but this rarely occurs. You
may be provided with suggestions or constructive criticism as to how to
move up. Understand that we do want you to go up in rank. There is no such
thing as top-heaviness in our rank structure. If our lowest ranking
members are Centurions, we're invincible! No promotions will be based on
favoritism or personal bias. All ranks and promotions will be handed out
on a completely objective basis according to your performance and
enthusiasm. Your length of service will of course be a consideration.
Another serious consideration is how regularly you fight, and how often
are you there for the important battles.
military machine depends upon training, discipline and strict
adherence to the chain of command. All new soldiers must learn and
follow this chain of command and recognize his or her place within it.
The figure to the right illustrates the military chain of command.
Roman soldier is expected to follow orders of those above them in the
chain of command, no Roman is expected to be subjected to inadequate
leadership. The Command Structure ensures that the most experienced
fighters call the shots on the battlefield. Each individual of Command
Rank (above the Legion block) has direct command over their personal
Legion. They have indirect command over anyone beneath their own rank.
Avoid calling orders to another Legion unless you are currently the
highest ranking officer alive, or are repeating the orders of the
Imperator or current Commander.
- Must have learned to be a resourceful and self-sufficient fighter.
- Must have an established character identity and background.
- Must exhibit loyalty to the Imperator, Senate, and People of Rome.
- Must own their own weapons and costume.
- Must exhibit decent characterization on the field.
- Must attend at least 6 events per year.
This level is basically a catch-all for those Optios who demonstrate
excellence in one of the rank requirements, or who exhibit a gradual
improvement in all of these characteristics. This rank also consists of
those fighters who are completely worthy of Centurion rank, but are unable
to attend the required number of events. A Decurion must attend at least
one third of the events Rome attends per annum to maintain his/her rank.
- You are not merely a competent soldier; you are an absolute bad-ass.
- Behave in and promote believable characterization through actions and
- You understand and can apply fundamental strategic and tactical
- You must own and wear some kind of body armor
- You must attend more battles than not per annum.
- Own equipment and participate along
with Rome’s Legions in all organizations where Rome participates
It helps to attend Markland and SCA events before truly being a fighter
of awesome combat ability. If your armor and costuming requirements are up
to par, you may feel that you are qualified for Centurion rank. If so, try
fighting some our current Centurions. If you can manage to best a few of
them two out of three in single combat, you are probably qualified.
Only Centurions and Commanders of higher rank (see below) are permitted
to have any brass armor, with the exception of minor fittings, such as
rivets, hinges and buckles, or minor ornamentation, such as lion's heads
and trim. Any former Centurions who have held the rank of Centurion since
April 2, 1995 are extended this privilege also.
- You have been a Legion Commander in the past (see below)
- You qualify for Centurion rank, based on the criteria detailed above
This rank is essentially an honorific, earned by a Legion Commander
whose Legion has gone inactive for whatever reason. Aside from Legion
Commanders, a Senior Centurion is the highest ranking officer on the
field. They should almost always be appointed the Primus Pilus (see
Legions) of whichever Legion they serve in, due to their experience and
In order to assume these exalted ranks, a Senator or Centurion must
first recruit four additional members for their five-man squad. Each of
these squads will be referred to as a Legion (which sounds far more
glorious than "squad"). The commander's rank is a measure of
his/her political status and combat ability, combined with the sheer power
of his/her Legion. The commander is responsible for seeing to it that his
Romans attend a bare minimum of 1 battle every 4 weekends just to maintain
active status. A Legion is defined as five active citizens. Also, the
- Choose a name and number for your Legion (consult history books if
authenticity is a concern).
- Create a Legion banner (Signum).
- Attend at least 20 medieval events annually.
- Own and wear torso armor.
- Submit Legion's attendance to Dominus or the Quaestor in writing at
every battle for records.
Since no Roman begins as either a Senator or a Centurion, an Auxiliary
who acquires citizenship and brings in four other citizens will have to
form a Legion temporarily under a Senator or Centurion.
If a Legion fails to keep at least four active members on its rosters
for a period of eight consecutive weeks the Legion will lose its active
status. The Legion number will be retired until the Legion commander can
reform his Legion. The Legion commander retains full rights to his Legion
number, and may give permission for another Legion commander to take up
his old Legion number. Also, all honors and awards will remain with the
Legion in question.
A Tribune is a Legion commander who is either of Centurion rank or
Senatorial status (see Roman Nobility). Some Senatorial Tribunes should
remember that a Centurion may have more field experience than themselves
and should listen to the Centurions' advice. As a sign of rank, a Tribune
must wear a red cape with purple borders as his regalia.
A Legate must be both a Senator and a fighter of Centurion quality. A
Legate is to be addressed as "Lord" or Legate on the
battlefield. This is only a Roman rank, but it will be observed. He or she
has earned the privilege. As a symbol of their rank, a Legate must wear
white cape with purple borders.
This is a military rank of nobility. A Count of Rome is a Legate who
has served as a Consul of Rome. As with a Legate, they will be referred to
as Lord or by their title. A Comes must wear a white cape with a border of
gold on purple.
The Dux Bellorum,
or Roman War Duke, is a military appointment by the Imperator, as Rome's
second-in-command. Typically this post will be held by Rome's senior Comes.
There were a rather significant number of Roman military decorations.
We do not currently have access to a forge, so large number of them will
be impossible to reproduce with any accuracy. Therefore they are
considerably difficult to obtain. For instance, the Corona Vallaris is
awarded to the first Roman over a fort wall. This in itself is not
difficult. Surviving is. Awards are not granted posthumously. Acts of
extreme heroism and prowess will guarantee promotions in rank. Death is
never final in medieval reenactment, but dead Romans get decent burials,
not awards. Therefore awards are as much a measure of your luck as combat
It is every Roman's duty to report any acts of valor to Dominus or
their commander after a battle so that each Roman deserving an award is
ensured his act was noticed and honored. (It is generally considered
distasteful to report your own acts of valor.) Frequently a promotion will
go hand in hand with award distribution. In good weather, we will hold
Awards Ceremonies after the battle. In severe weather, we can schedule
ceremonies in comfortable places at convenient times.
These silver disks with raised bas-relief circles are presented to
soldiers who exhibit extreme valor and heroism in battle. Traditionally
they were riveted on a harness, but you may opt to wear them on a kidney
belt. Harnesses could have up to nine phalerae per side in rows of three
CORONAE, or Crowns. The term was generally confined to military
decorations of the very highest honor. In descending order of importance,
these crowns for various acts of bravery are as follows.
Corona Graminea, or Grass Crown
Made from the grass on the battlefield. Given for saving an entire
Legion, or rarely, an entire army. This is the only award that may be
conferred upon a soldier by the Legion or army in question.
Corona Civica, or State Crown
This crown of oak leaves was given for saving the life, or lives of your
fellow soldiers and holding that ground for the rest of the battle.
Corona Aurea, or Gold Crown
Given for personally winning a battle.
Corona Vallaris, or Rampart Crown
Awarded to the first man over the walls of an enemy fort.
Corona Navalis, or Naval Crown
Awarded for outstanding valor during a sea battle.
The Triumphal Parade is awarded by the Senate to commanders who (with
their Legion) are responsible for having won a decisive battle or
campaign. With the possible exception of the Grass Crown, this was the
highest of military honors. We could have a lot of fun with the parade. We
should build ourselves a small two-wheeled chariot, to be pulled by the
victorious Legion. The Triumphal Parade could either be a solemn
observance, or the Legion could race through the woods with their "Triumphator"
clinging to the chariot's rickety frame.
Romans had lots of names. These reflected on the number of families they
were related to, an often staggering number of lofty ancestors, or titles
and alterations awarded as honors by the state.
Traditionally a man's name would consist of one's personal name, the
family (house) name, and finally the family branch’s name, were given in
that order. Historic example: Gaius Julius Caesar. Gaius was his first
name. His family was the Caesar branch of the Julian House. Frequently the
father and son's names would alternate from one generation to the next for
the firstborn. Women had only their family and house name in feminine
form. Very frequently a woman's name was a man's made feminine by dropping
the 'us' or 'ius' in favor of a 'ia' or an 'a'. Women did not adopt their
husband's family name after marriage. They kept the feminine form of their
father's name. Some examples are detailed at the bottom.
In the case of adoption, the adopted Roman changed his second and third
names to that of his new family. His old family name was added to the end
to reflect his lineage. A modification was added to reflect the adoption.
The "...ius" suffix was replaced with "...anus". For instance: Octavius
becomes Octavianus; Aurelius becomes Aurelianus.
Honors were bestowed in the form of alterations for great military
achievements. Sometimes a name will be added for a successful campaign.
For instance, in subduing the Carthaginians under Hannibal, Scipio was
awarded the name/title of "Africanus". The Emperor Claudius' brother was
given the title of "Germanicus" for his glorious German campaign. So if
your legion manages to route and destroy the whole Gwynedd unit some lucky
day, you'll be given the title "Gwyneddicus" to add to the end of your
name. Please do not begin your persona with these alterations. They will
be awarded for outstanding and successful acts of valor for which you will
all have an opportunity.
Although we have many diverse nationalities represented in our ranks, some
of whom have pre-established personas from their existing medievalist
careers, I encourage you to take on a Roman surname, if not a "battle
name". Once you start or join a noble Household, you will adopt a surname
to go with your existing name, and we'll do our best to refer to you that
way as often as possible. This helps promote unit identity, and helps
outsiders to readily identify you as a citizen of the Empire. Below are
some Roman personal names that you may feel free to choose from. For the
sake of diction, please remember that accents tend to fall on the second
syllable, and all C's are hard (i.e., pronounced like cat, not center) and
all G's are hard (sounds like get, not general).
Roman society was
based on a variety of social levels. These levels tended to overlap and
lose definition as Roman culture evolved from the Age of Kings through the
Republican Period. Our structure loosely reflects the social hierarchy of
the Late Republic through Early Imperial periods. You may ask, "We are
essentially a fighting group - what is the value of social status?" There
are several answers. First: it is a legitimate way to acknowledge,
recognize, and reward those citizens who have dedicated time and effort
towards building Rome into the great nation we have become. Secondly: Rome
is the fantasy most of us enjoy living (if you don't, why be a Roman?). By
emulating Roman cultural standards we can realize our fantasies at a
number of levels; we can't be the Senate and People of Rome if we don't
have a Senate. Thirdly: it gives new citizens goals to achieve. In ancient
Rome, it was possible for even a mere freedman of great energy and merit
to rise high above his common status. Fourthly, and last: this structure
ensures that Rome's hard-core members who have proven their worth and
dedication (i.e., The Senators) direct how and where the Empire is going.
Almost all Romans
fell into the class known as the Plebeians. Since all new members (with
very few exceptions) will begin here, so shall this explanation of Roman
A Plebeian is the
standard Roman citizen. This will be the starting social status for almost
every citizen of Rome. There may be occasional exceptions for veterans,
but almost every new recruit will be a Plebeian. You are the foundation of
Rome, the basis of the entire unit. You are the people in the expression
"Senate and People of Rome". You are not a lowly peasant. You are a
citizen of Rome, and you must never bend a knee in supplication to either
lords or gods.
You are encouraged
to seek out a Noble Household and offer your services as a "Client" in
exchange for their "Patronage". The mutual obligations between patron and
client may differ somewhat from House to House. For the most part these
obligations consist merely of looking after one another's interests. The
patron represents his/her clients' interests in the Senate and helps them
progress up Rome's social ladder. In return the Patron should expect
his/her Clients to support specific candidates in the elections and keep
an ear to the ground on their behalf. It is possible to be a client of a
patron who is a client of his own patron. In this case, your patron's
patron would also be your patron.
Plebeian may increase their social status to Equestrian in any of three
Seek election as
Tribune of the Plebs (see Roman Officials)
Roman Family) into a Household. Adoption does not automatically provide
the adopted Roman a seat in the Senate. The adopted Equestrian or
Patrician must still become a Senator through political office
three of the highest military awards (see awards), the Coronae Graminea,
Civica, or Aurea
Senate representation through the Tribune of the Plebs. While the Tribune
may not vote, he/she has considerable power. The Plebeian Tribune's
abilities are detailed under Roman Politics and Officials.
is indeed a desirable thing to be well-descended, but the glory belongs to
(46-120AD), Greek essayist, biographer. Moralia, "On the Training of
Children" (c. 100 A.D.).
The following two
classes compose the actual Roman Nobility. They are the Equestrian Order
and the Patrician class. They are essentially equal. The primary
difference is that the Patrician Houses are older and date back to Roman
antiquity. The Equestrian Order is newer, Plebeian Noble Houses. If you
reach Senatorial status independently of an existing House, your surname
becomes the name of your noble Household, and you are encouraged to find
clients. Generally your Household and clients will compose your Legion.
Both Patrician and Equestrian Houses retain their noble status regardless
of whether a member of the family maintains a seat in the Senate.
The Equestrian Order
is the Plebeian nobility. These are Plebeians who have ennobled themselves
by entering the Senate. Also referred to as the Equites, or Knights; in
Roman antiquity, these were the wealthy, landed Plebeian merchant class
granted a "Public Horse" by the State so they could act as the Republic's
cavalry. Anyone below this Equestrian status should not have any purple in
their costume at all. Purple was reserved for the nobility. Equestrians
wore a slim (one inch width) purple stripe (clavus) down the right of
their tunics (front and back) to signify their noble status. Optionally,
Equestrians may wear a plain gold ring, which was another historical
requisite of their rank. By the time you reach the status of Equestrian,
if not before, you should have a toga for formal occasions.
The Patrician Class
is Rome's elite aristocracy, the powerful Founding Families of Rome. For
centuries Patricians governed Rome exclusively. To be a Patrician is to
view the Senate (indeed, the Consulship) as your birthright. Your
bloodline can be traced to the Senate of Romulus himself, and is steeped
in honors, culture, and tradition. Your ancestors have held high office,
commanded great armies, and installed the known world beneath the Roman
boot. In reality, the Patrician Class is Rome's old guard, a particular
distinction for those who originally helped build Rome into the great
empire of which you are a part. The title is just a formal acknowledgement
of their tenure in Rome. Patricians should sew a broad purple stripe (at
least two inches wide) down the right side of their tunics to signify
their rank. Historically, Patricians also wore an iron ring, and shoes of
Patrician families are as follows: House Arthol, House Gracchus, House
Deloricus, House Ickorus, House Septimus, House Tempest, House Valerius,
House Vrykolacus, and House Xirinius. Any
member whose tenure with Rome predates July 2nd, 1995 may establish a
Patrician House upon their entrance into the Senate provided they are not
already a member of an existing House.
Do not feel
intimidated or threatened to approach any of the nobility. This is only a
game, your association with us is entirely voluntary, and we all want you
to enjoy yourselves to the utmost. If you are not having fun, tell us how
we can help. But Rome is growing fast! Organization enhances our own
enjoyment and sets us apart from the usual mobs that comprise other units.
As a free citizen of Rome, you must never grovel before your nobility, but
you should be respectful towards those of higher noble rank. After all,
your votes help decide who is elevated to these lofty ranks.
A final note on
Roman Nobility. We've seen a lot of groups where younger or new members
are regularly mistreated, ordered around, and generally treated as
servants. This is not the intent behind our social hierarchy, nor will it
be abused in this manner. If you feel mistreated within Rome, tell someone
in the unit about your problem. We'll do our best to set things right.
The concept of
family was a vital mainstay in Roman culture, although more complex than
we are used to. Adoption was quite common, making the new family member
just as much a part of the family as any blood relative. Also, servants
and slaves who served a family for generations became thought of as just
as much a part of the family as anyone else. Further, children never moved
out. They would remain with their spouses and children in the parents'
ancestral House. Detailed below are methods of expanding families and
Houses within the scope of the game:
Our characters may
become interrelated after character creation. Example: if the Patrician
Amroth Valerius Baculus were to have a client he was particularly fond of,
he might offer them adoption into his family, the House Valerius.
Henceforth, that individual would have the surname Valerius added to their
current name, and be given the Patrician status of the House Valerius.
JOINING A HOUSE UPON CHARACTER CREATION
New recruits may
select to base their characters on already existing Noble houses. Example:
Aristodemus, chose (with permission) to establish his persona as the
brother of his real life brother, Tobias Deloricus Desponius. This endowed
him with the Patrician status of House Deloricus.
Of course, if you do
base your character on someone else or their family without permission,
you are illegitimate and not heir to the status their family holds. This
really is not acceptable and they might kill you (repeatedly) to avoid the
typically did not marry below their station, anything is possible. If a
couple within the group (who are of different social status) elect to
"marry" their personas, the individual of lower status will move up to the
social status of the other, as will their blood relatives. If both
families in question are of already noble stock, the marriage usually
constitutes only an alliance between their respective Houses.
A Patrician or
Equestrian who achieved their Senatorial status by election to public
office has the right to start a new House. By joining a pre-existing
Patrician or Equestrian House through adoption, character conception, or
marriage, the new Patrician rescinds this right to start a new Patrician
or Equestrian Household.
in a Patrician or Equestrian House does not automatically confer the rank
of Senator on the individual. He or she must still achieve Senatorial
status through election as a Tribune of the Plebs, Quaestor, or Aedile.
The advantages are that a Plebeian can skip some steps to move up in Roman
social status. As a noble, he/she may achieve Senatorial status by
election to Quaestor or Aedile rather than being limited solely to
election as Tribune of the Plebs. Of course, a Patrician may only become a
Senator by election as Quaestor or Aedile.
A unit, or nation,
is only an idea that everyone agrees to. Like it or not, all groups have
their politics. Ancient Rome was the rule rather than the exception. On
this subject, there are a few things to say. We believe that Empires
should be built to last. This political structure ensures that our
glorious nation represents the views of its citizens. Rome has NO time for
dirty little games that prove detrimental to us as a group. Our elections
and Senate shall serve as the only forum for our politics. On the
battlefield, there is never time for voting.
The Senate is Rome's
governing body, composed of those Romans who have distinguished themselves
politically by serving as elected officials. The Senate's duty is to
ensure that Rome thrives in all her non-military aspects, and to act as
Rome's administrative body. Rome's Senate controls the Treasury, votes on
new legislation, and establishes policy. This structure helps assure that
Rome is governed by the general consensus of her responsible membership.
The Roman Empire has
already been misconstrued as a democracy. Rome is NOT a democracy. Only
the Senators vote. A non-Senator gets no vote on the Senate beyond the
Tribune's powers or that which his/her patron may lobby for on their
behalf. If a label must be applied to Rome, we are a Republican Oligarchic
Fascist Dictatorship. After all, we are the Roman Empire. Our system has
worked exceedingly well for years.
The lex Cornelia
states that a Senator who becomes inactive (i.e., does not participate in
scheduled Roman events for four weekends) twice in a given six month
period forfeits their Senatorial status and must go through regular
procedures to reinstate themselves. An inactive Roman is unfamiliar with
current internal and external conditions, and he or she should not be
voting blindly on Roman policy. This rule ensures that Rome is protected
from ignorant or uninformed Senators.
The lex Xirinia
Arthola further states that any Roman elevated to the Senate by
election must fulfill the duties of their office during their term or
forfeit their Senatorial status.
Magistrates, the Consuls, will call for meetings of the Senate. A
Senatorial Quorum shall be defined as such: one Consul, the Praetor, the
Imperator, and two Senators (other than the Magistrates already listed)
must be present. The Tribune of the Plebs need not be present. However,
all proposed legislation must still be ratified by the Tribune of the
Plebs. All proposed legislation must be put in writing prior to a
division. At the discretion of the Consuls, there will be meetings where
all Romans may attend. However, when the "Senate is in Session", be it in
a back room, a tent or around a side campfire, citizens are expected NOT
to interrupt their discussions and must try to ensure that the Senate is
not bothered by outsiders or trivial questions. Your cooperation in this
matter will be greatly appreciated.
ORDER IN THE HOVSE
The Senate is
presided over by the Consuls. At the beginning of the meeting, auspices
should be held by the Pontifex Maximus or the ranking Augur (see Roman
Religious Colleges) to determine the approval of the gods. The Consuls may
then call the meeting to order. The Consuls shall introduce each topic.
Only the Tribune of the Plebs may interrupt the Consuls (with a Veto). The
proper order for the Consuls to call on other speakers is as follows: the
Imperator, the Praetor, the Aedile, the Quaestor, followed by consulars
and other members of the Senate in order of their abundance of military
awards. This is the appropriate progression. Non-Senators may be called
upon to speak in open sessions, but have no actual right to speak. Of
course, the Consuls may opt not to allow anyone to speak on a given topic:
they operate the Senate and that is their right. A Consul, for instance,
may propose a law and call for an immediate division of the Senate. ONLY
Senators may vote on an issue, even in an open session. NO foreign kings
may attend a Senate meeting (even as an ambassadorial representative),
according to ancient tradition. Only a king's ambassador may appear before
the Senate. Kings were only allowed inside Rome when chained to the back
of a triumphing general's chariot. This completes our political structure.
Roman politics have their place in the elections and Senate.
The Roman Republic had a magnificent
constitution with its own checks and balances. This structure
permits Plebeians to move up
the social ladder according to their ability and standing.
The Political Hierarchy is a forum
(no pun intended) for Roman administration through both the Senate and
the Plebeian Assembly. The Consuls run the Senate which represents the
Noble Houses. The Tribune of the Plebs represents Plebeian and
Equestrian interests in the Senate and is capable of Vetoing Senate
legislation. This format provides for a great deal of pomp and
circumstance while ensuring that the wants, needs, and expectations of
each Roman citizen are at least recognized.
TRIBVNE OF THE PLEBS
- This appointment
is ONLY open to Plebeians and Equestrians
- Only Plebeians
and Equestrians may vote in the Tribune's election
- The Tribune is
the only Plebeian allowed to sit in on ALL Senate meetings as the
- The Tribune is
empowered with the VETO, allowing him/her to reject literally any Senate
legislation or function
- Following the
six-month term, the Tribune automatically becomes a member of the Senate
and Equestrian Order (if not already)
- This appointment
is only open to Equestrians and Patricians. Because of the fiscal nature
of this appointment, the candidate must be gainfully employed and at
least eighteen years of age, unless unanimously approved by the Senate
- The Quaestor acts
as a Treasurer for Rome, and is accountable to the Senate for any funds
- The Quaestor
serves as procurer, and shall oversee any purchases made collectively by
Rome. This includes any funding granted to the Aedile for their event
- The Quaestor
shall maintain a list of the Roman combatants at every event
- The Quaestor is
immediately elevated to the Senate (if he/she is not already a Senator)
- This appointment
is only open to Equestrians and Patricians
- The Aedile must
sponsor and preside over two events in Rome's name, i.e., battle, games,
races, feast, quest, or a sacred hunt. One of the two events shall be
exclusively Roman. This is an important responsibility, as Rome relies
on its Aedile for recognition and public relations.
- Aedile candidates
must present their ideas for events when announcing their candidacy.
This event must be pre-approved by the Consuls and Tribune of the Plebs.
The Consuls and Tribune may disapprove an event, not a candidate, for
this reason (lex Valeria Junia)
- The ballot for
Aedile must include a brief description of the event they wish to hold (lex
- The Aedile is
immediately elevated to the Senate (if he/she is not already a Senator)
- This appointment
is only open to Senators
- The Praetor is
responsible to the Senate and People to ensure that ALL Rome's laws are
obeyed under the terms detailed in the lex Romana
- The Praetor shall
act as judge in disputes involving Romans, whether internal or external
- The Praetor will
serve as a Consul suffectus if a Consul is unable to keep
appointments are only open to Senators who have been Praetor or Consul.
- There will always
be two Consuls
- The Consuls are
responsible for calling and presiding over all meetings of the Senate
- The Consuls will
be responsible for publishing the first Roman newsletter after entering
- Only the Consuls
may introduce new Roman laws (The Imperator may introduce only martial
- Only the Consuls
may call for a division of the Senate (a vote)
- Only the Consuls
may call for elections
- No Consul may be
removed from office before the end of his/her term
- All proposed
legislation must be put into writing prior to a division of the Senate
- After their term,
a Consul secures the title and status of "Consular," allowing them two
Senatorial votes (this is not accumulative)
This is not an elected position. I,
Dominus, reserve this title for myself, along with the endowment of
dictatorial powers and imperium. I am Rome's founder and have been a unit
commander since 1982. I am both qualified and worthy. In accordance with
the Augustan constitution I shall act with the advice of the Senate. My
authority and responsibilities are as follows:
armies in the field
Seconds-in-Command (i.e., Legion Commanders)
of military promotions and awards
and revocations of citizenship
punishments when the Senate's laws are violated
martial laws to the Senate for ratification
- Call for a
"State of Emergency" (in times of threat against Rome)
While I implicitly
trust everyone currently in Rome, problems have occurred in the past when
certain opportunists have sought to ruin our good thing. I will say for
the record now: Rome is my unit. It's yours too, but I started it. My
position is not an elected one. I cannot be voted out of office, replaced,
displaced, usurped, impeached, killed, or kicked out. This is a game, not
ancient Rome. If you want to play power games, don’t join. I am a
genuinely nice guy, and I sincerely want you to have fun and enjoy the
tremendous benefits of Roman citizenship. Our entire structure is designed
and balanced to allow for lots of egos. My position and title are not an
exercise of personal ego. I will ensure Rome's survival at all costs. I
will not entrust Rome's survival to anyone else.
More should be
written here. The text above is years old, written in the militaristic
tone of Rome's original Handbook. I am a longstanding Roman tradition. The
wording above has gone respectfully untouched for years in our Mos
you think of Rome in terms of a football team, I am Rome's head coach. I
am also privileged to be a star quarterback among several star
quarterbacks (No, I'm not a football fan - I'd rather be sword fighting.
;-) What I am not is a "king." I don't lord about or put on airs. I never
give "orders" off the battlefield. I don't like "yes men," and I detest
bowing and scraping. I don't require anyone to address me by my title.
Rome is a team, and we do this to have a good time. My most important
responsibility is to make sure that Romans are having a good time. It's a
responsibility I take very seriously. Having fun also means winning lots
of battles. Or occasionally going out gloriously against overwhelming
Authority in Rome only exists to fulfill responsibilities to the
organization. New people notice quickly that people in leadership roles do
the most work, on and off the battlefield. My authority includes the
privilege of honoring and acknowledging those who do hard work for Rome,
like recruiting, equipping, and running a Legion. I also get to reward
and recognize experienced "soldiers" who contribute to Rome's military
take Rome seriously, and always consider what's best for the group. We all
do. That's the reason for our many years of consistent success. Many of
our membership have been doing this for years, we have a lot invested.
It's a fun crowd of great people, who know how to leave personal issues at
the door for the sake of the group. We have no patience for troublemakers.
take a great deal of pride in our level of commitment and integrity, our
achievements, our lasting reputation, and the many dedicated friends and
Romans who support the team's pre-eminence. I welcome anyone else to join,
to share and support our vision of Roman greatness.
Every six months we
hold elections for the positions detailed above. A citizen must announce
his/her candidacy at least one month before the election so that it may be
recorded on the ballot sheet (see below). If no one runs for a position,
someone will be appointed. No individual may hold the same office two
terms in a row. A Roman Magistrate or Official who becomes inactive during
their term must resign from office, and the Consuls (who are exempt from
this) must announce elections for the vacant position. Further, no Roman
who is inactive may be a candidate in the elections. To qualify, he/she
must have been active for at least four weeks prior to nomination. He/she
must also sign the Roman Contract of Citizenship prior to announcing their
agreement has been made by Consular running mates as to who will hold the
Senior and Junior positions. It therefore bodes well for Rome when two
consular candidates declare a joint candidacy. It shows that they will
work together rather than trying to eclipse each other. The elections are
not intended as a popularity contest. It is the responsibility of the
Senate and People of Rome to elect the best candidate for each position.
It is also the responsibility of a Patron's clients to vote his way. If
you do not win at first, do not allow it to dishearten you or weaken your
resolve. In six months you may announce your candidacy and run again.
Spend more time canvassing Roman patrons with plenty of clients or the
clout to support your candidacy and your political career.
The Praetor and the
Quaestor shall preside, splitting the Patricians apart from the
Equestrians and Plebeians. Providing two pens and ballot boxes for the
vote, the Praetor and Quaestor shall distribute the ballots. Only the
Plebeian/ Equestrian group may vote for Tribune of the Plebs.
When all votes have
been cast, the Praetor and Quaestor shall sufficiently stir and open the
ballot boxes. The votes will be tallied secretly. In the case of a draw,
some alternate method of deciding may be selected.
There shall be two
Consuls, one Senior Consul (with the majority of votes) and the other
Junior Consul. The winners shall be announced and the Pontifex Maximus
shall administer the Oaths of Office to the new Magistrates and Tribune.
IN SVO ANNO
It is generally
regarded as impossible for a candidate to run in absentia, that is, in
ADDITIONAL OFFICIAL FVNCTIONS
A Roman Official or
Magistrate may be called upon by the Senate or Imperator to act as a
representative of Rome. Roman Officials were historically notorious for
sticking their unwanted noses into the business of foreign nations and
dignitaries. The Official's function may be diplomatic, investigative, to
serve a summons, or to represent Rome's interests on a medieval society's
council. In any case, the Official carries the full weight of Roman
authority. Upon completion of the task, the Official shall report the
results to the Senate.
With the exception
of the Tribune, the Roman Magistrates are entitled to the wear the Toga
Praetexta (purple bordered toga) from the time of their appointment into
Following a term in
political elected office, the Magistrate's title is altered by adding the
suffix "pro" for the following six-month term. For instance, an ex-Praetor
becomes the Propraetor, the ex-Consul becomes the Proconsul, etc. This is
strictly an honorary title and accords no powers to the individual.
Historically the Proconsuls and Propraetors would be given a province to
govern (bleed dry) and would not be seen in Rome for at least a year.
Imperium is best
defined as what kings have: total power. When Rome ran her Kings out on a
rail, they took all the imperium possessed by the Kings and divided it
among the higher, or "curule" Magistracies. A Dictator, the Consuls,
Praetor, and Aedile all possess imperium, as do Proconsuls and Propraetors
during their stints as governor. Each man possessing imperium was
proceeded everywhere he went by lictors who carried the bundled rods
(Fasces) as symbols of authority. Outside of Rome, the Proconsuls and
Propraetors had axe blades fixed in the bundles, demonstrating the
governors' total authority over life and death. What's more, a
Pro-magistrate could not enter the city of Rome without losing all of his
imperium. Consuls and Proconsuls had twelve lictors each, and the Praetors
and Propraetors had six, but the Aedile only four. Dictators also had
twelve until Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who maintained twenty-four. The
concept of imperium, and division thereof, was a Roman form of checks and
balances. Even in the early Imperial period of Rome, the "Emperor" (or
Princeps) enjoyed only Proconsular imperium (albeit within the walls of
Rome) and Tribunician inviolability. But his imperium was still shared
with the elected Magistrates. As a final note, foreign kings are not
thought of as having imperium. Imperium is the civilized, distributed,
Roman version of what a foreign king would have, were he good enough to be
For Rome's purposes,
imperium is possessed by our Magistrates and Pro-magistrates listed above.
Imperium imbues these officials with the authority to speak for Rome and
to act independently as an official in Rome's best interests. He or she
may do this under the auspices of their imperium, without having to seek
Senatorial approval first. Any act by them requires Senatorial sanction
afterwards to be official. For instance, a Roman Propraetor attends a
distant battle in the Midwest. Impressed with a foreign nation's honor and
military strength, the Propraetor deems it in Rome's best interests to
pursue a Treaty of Friendship and Alliance with this foreign nation. The
Treaty is not official until the Senate approves it, but the Propraetor
has not overstepped his or her authority in pursuing it. Or in
representing Rome by speaking on that Midwestern organization's "war
council" or similar organization.
This is not to say
that a Roman citizen can't step up to someone talking smack about Rome or
their fellow Romans, provided they do so responsibly and in a way that
does not reflect poorly on us or enflame the situation. Nor does this
imply you can't or shouldn't express your opinions. Being a Roman is about
freedom, it's about not having a King! Just be clear that that your
actions or statements do not represent the Senate and People. Nor do they
carry the weight and authority of a Roman Magistrate imbued with the power
of life and death under Roman Law.
The following are
positions are religious or spiritual in nature rather than political. The
Romans created colleges (Romans referred to any guild or union as a
"college") to preside over all matters of a supernatural nature. As a
culture the Romans were an extremely superstitious people. However they
possessed an extremely businesslike approach to their beliefs. For
instance, if a Roman required a thing, he would consult a priest of the
appropriate god to determine a suitable sacrifice and prayer. When the
Roman had accomplished the priest's ordained procedure, he could rest
easy, secure in the knowledge that the deity would fulfill his/her part of
The College of
Pontifexes included every flamen (high priest) and pontifex of Rome's
deities with the exception of Vesta. The College was responsible for
administering to all of Rome's religious needs. The pontifexes shall swear
in new Magistrates, conduct ceremonies, worship, and sacrifices, and
ensure that Rome remains the favorite of the gods.
The College of
Augurs were priests whose duties were concerned with divination rather
than prognostication. Augurs did not predict the future, or pursue
auguries at their personal whim. They inspected the proper objects and
signs to ascertain whether an undertaking had the approval of the gods, be
the undertaking a meeting, a war, a proposed law, or any other state
business. There was virtually a manual of interpretations, so an Augur did
not have to pretend to be psychic. In fact the Roman State typically
mistrusted anyone claiming psychic powers. Augurs carried a staff called a
The head of the
Colleges is the Pontifex Maximus. The Pontifex Maximus must preserve the
channels of power between Rome and her immortal deities. The Pontifex
Maximus reigns over all things religious. As with Magistrate positions,
elections for Pontifex Maximus will occur every six months, as announced
by the Consuls. All of Rome may vote in the election. Unlike the
Magistrate positions, the Pontifex Maximus may hold consecutive terms and
may also run for a political office simultaneously.
- This position is
open to Equestrians and Patricians
- The Pontifex
Maximus should attend more events than not
- Have sufficient
characterization to lead Rome (and the Colleges) in solemn religious
ceremonies and conduct sacrifices
- Upon election,
the Pontifex Maximus gains a seat in the Senate. For the duration of
their term in office, the Pontifex Maximus may add their title to the
end of their name as a token of Rome's high esteem
"The good of the people is the greatest law."
-Cicero (106-43 B.C.), Roman orator, philosopher.
"What good citizen ever seperated his own from the national
The Military Tribune Caius Servilius Ahala
The following are rules that every Roman must abide by. They are meant
to enhance everyone's enjoyment of the events. Besides, they also promote
Rome's greatness. Keep in mind that as with any legal system, precedent is
vital. For Roman history enthusiasts (we do seem to attract such people),
keep in mind that any legal precedent from either the Sullan or Augustan
constitutions will be considered valid, except for obvious folly (laws
that define slavery or discriminate against women's rights, etc.). All of
these rules are easily obeyed if one simply puts Rome's interests first.
There are always modifications to existing legislation, so the laws not
regarded as sacred are not static. Regular updates are provided to
citizens via the Commentaries, which are published on a bimonthly basis.
If it isn't found in the lists that follow, that doesn't mean it is not
a law. Technically everything you will find within these pages is at least
policy. That is why we call it the Mos Maiorum. The definition of a
Senatorial quorum is as much a law as you will find on the tablets that
follow. We Romans believe in order, and we believe in Rome. The laws are
there to provide for both.
These laws have been broken down into martial and civil categories.
Civil laws involve camping and other aspects of medievalism that aren't
combat oriented. Since these apply to everyone, they will be listed first.
Some laws have been rendered sacred and unchangeable. Civil Laws one
through eight below are all sacred and therefore inviolable, i.e., cannot
- Your actions reflect on the group, both externally and internally.
Try to think about what you do. Most of the following are extensions of
- We always camp TOGETHER. This helps to promote unit identity and
camaraderie. It gives new people a chance to meet everyone and insures
that . . .
- Responsibilities will be shared in camp. Its smarter, simpler and
cheaper for us to eat and work together. So be prepared to volunteer. I
realize that you're on a vacation of sorts, and no one expects you to work
all weekend. But if you pitch in and do your share, you won't be assigned
- Don't mooch. Try to get your own gear assembled. Be prepared to
contribute when we split expenses for feasting and partying. If you can't,
make arrangements in advance.
- We are all expected to help and encourage new citizens. Don't
- Show respect for each other publicly. I insist on this. If there's
a personality conflict, work it out privately. Don't compound a problem by
running your mouth. What's more, if we take our own unit as a joke, so
will everyone else and we'll never expand. If you have a problem with
this, refer to Rule #1 and think about it.
- Sentries will be posted to guard the Legions' banners.
- The person of a Roman Magistrate on official business is
inviolable and may not be interfered with in any way.
- All citizens are required to pay $5.00 to Rome's Quaestor
for every month in which they participate in events that Rome attends.
This money will go into the Roman Treasury, and be allocated by the Senate
for Rome's best interests. A lex Arthola Claudia amendment
states that any citizen who owes the Roman treasury $15.00 and comes
out to battle in a new month, CANNOT take the field without paying
the dues for the new month. Thus no Roman can owe more than $15.00
to the State. Under the lex Xirinia Junia, Civilians and/or
Provincials are required to pay $20.00/per annum.
- Citizens, Probatii, Provincials and Auxiliaries camping with Rome
at Pennsic XXX will pay $100 camp dues to the Quaestor before or
upon arrival at the war. Significant others who are sharing tents
must pay $25. Children under 16 are exempt. All Pennsic camping dues
will be spent on Pennsic.
The remaining rules apply specifically to combat participants. They
pertain to legions in the field. Laws one through seven below are all
- Don't join us for convenience. We'll help armor and equip you. We'll
train you to fight and teach you to help others. But, make your own
decision. Rome's assistance isn't based on altruism. If we're taken
advantage of, we'll hound you through Hades to the very walls of Tartarus.
- We assemble off the field and march on together. This makes for a
more intimidating spectacle. It only strengthens the enemy's morale (and
weakens ours) when a small group of Romans take the field piecemeal and
get stomped. A lex Xirinia Cornelia addendum to this law is that Rome also
quits the field together, traditionally with a final victory. Feel free to
keep fighting, but Rome's banners will leave and forts will be
disassembled so that no one can say they bested Rome, when all they have
beaten are a few lingering Romans. A lex Xirinia Valeria addendum is that
Rome's highest ranking officer present will decide whether Rome takes the
field at the close of check-in.
- Obey orders. We're soldiers, not warriors. In order to win, we
must work as a team. On the field, the officers are gods. Their words are
law! If there is a problem, we can discuss it later, off the field and
- Listen for orders. Wasting words on your opponents distracts the
rest of the legions from their alertness. If you want to sound off,
concentrate on keeping the line together. Listen for changes in formation,
calls to reform, charge, pivot, etc.
- Take your shots. We've come up with this tender euphemism called
rhino-hiding. I don't want to hear that expression anymore. Let's call it
cheating. Rome has no place for cheaters among her legions. Armour
distributes the impact, so listen for the blow. It's always a good idea to
call your shots. (Some groups require it.)
- Enemies are shared. If we are betrayed by our teammates, we
retaliate decisively. If an enemy consistently refuses to acknowledge our
blows, we attack him personally as a group. If a Roman (see #1 above) uses
us as a nice safe recruiting ground, or reaps the benefits of our
experience, we persecute them mercilessly. I will gladly forsake a team
victory for the purpose of ruthlessly avenging an insult to us as a group.
If the offender is on our team, so much the better; we don't have to chase
them down. Paybacks are hell, and the most effective fighting groups are
the ones who inspire terror among their enemies.
- When Romans must take the field individually or as legions we
fight each other last. This occurs in "every man for himself"
battles, five man teams and unit/country battles where we are deemed too
large as a group. It looks outstanding to see a multitude of red tunics
still standing when the dust clears.
- A Roman soldier may not leave
camp in the without first demonstrating to the Camp Prefect's
satisfaction the combat readiness of his armor and weapons. At their
own discretion, the Camp Prefect may accept a verbal guarantee from a
soldier. The Camp Prefect is also empowered to appoint a Quartermaster
at an event to assist him with these inspection duties.
- No Roman may assist a non-citizen with the design or construction
of a muscle cuirass. The muscle cuirass is a trademark specific to
Rome, and its construction is a rite of passage for our new
citizens. Design and construction of other equipment, including
weapons, shields, generic armor, is a different matter altogether.
Non-citizens are welcome at armor making sessions where muscle
cuirasses are not being made. Romans should assume some
responsibility for promoting medieval combat societies and providing
assistance, help, and encouragement to all who share our interest in
medieval combat. The most basic tenant of good sportsmanship is
accepting some responsibility for your opponents’ successful
enjoyment of the sport.
- All military citizens are
required to pay five dollars to Rome's Quaestor for every month in
which they participate in events that Rome attends. This money will go
into the Roman Treasury, and be allocated by the Senate for Rome's
The lex Arthola Claudia amendment states that a citizen who
owes the Roman treasury $15.00 and comes out to battle in a new month,
CANNOT take the field without paying the dues for the new month. Thus
no Roman can owe more than $15.00 to the State.
The lex Beldinia Delorica states that a military citizen may
pay $25.00 to cover dues for the entire consulship. This can only be
paid at the first battle of a consulship
- A Roman may not attend a
different event on the same day as a scheduled event without
securing permission to do so from the Imperator. Concentrating our
forces helps to ensure victory. Spreading the army thin weakens our
forces and diminishes Rome's greatness. Senatorial exceptions can be
made for Roman citizens and Provincials living in remote
If a citizen does not adhere to Rome's laws or policies as outlined in
the Mos Maiorum in a given six-month period or Consulship, he/she will
receive the following for each individual law or policy that the citizen
1st transgression: Verbal Warning from the Praetor
2nd transgression: Verbal Warning from the Praetor
3rd transgression: Written Warning from the Imperator
4th transgression: Demotion in rank from the Imperator
5th transgression: Citizen will be barred from Rome until citizen
adheres to Mos Maiorum laws/policies.
APPENDIX I -ROMAN
CONTRACT OF CITIZENSHIP
- I understand that in signing this document I am accepting
"citizenship" (to be defined hereafter) in the wargaming club
referred to as "Rome." This not for profit wargaming club is
dedicated to recreational pursuits in medievalist combat and live action
role playing societies. Rome's purpose is to participate successfully in
these societies as a cohesive fighting unit. Rome recognizes and upholds
all safety requirements in societies in which we participate, not only for
our own members but for all participants.
- I understand that Roman citizenship
is defined as participation, active or otherwise, in the organization
known as Rome. Upon obtaining citizenship, an individual may be
classified as a Roman. The
terms are interchangeable and both are used throughout this contract.
Citizenship reflects not only participation, but also that the citizen
follows the laws and principles defined collectively in the Roman
Handbook and updates released in Roman publications. These rules are
outlined specifically for the protection of the group and to insure that
its members have a full opportunity to enjoy their participation in the
organization of Rome. These rules also insure that the organization of
Rome can successfully reenact, at least in visual representation, its
historic antecedent, the Roman Legions.
- I understand that Roman citizenship is only bestowed by Rome's founder, Sean M.
Richey, hereafter referred to as the "Imperator." The Imperator
retains full rights to endow other Romans with the right to extend offers
of citizenship to non-Romans. The Imperator further retains full rights to
revoke this citizenship at any time.
- In accepting my Roman citizenship, I understand that I must adhere
to the laws and principles of Rome published within the "Guidelines
and Structure" chapter of the Roman Handbook. I understand also that
my membership in Rome as a citizen relies on my continued adherence to
Rome's laws and principles. I further understand that additions and
alterations in these policies may occur in the course of my participation
as a citizen of Rome. I understand that these policies and rules are
established by vote in the assembly of citizens who compose the
"Senate" (to be defined hereafter). I understand that my
citizenship in Rome is permanent subject to my adherence to these laws and
principles. I have read and understand the laws and principles of Rome
outlined in the "Guidelines and Structure" section of the Roman
Handbook. I understand additional updates will be published and provided
to me. In signing this document I agree to adhere to the laws and
principles as defined by the "Guidelines and Structure" section
of the Roman Handbook and subsequent releases.
- I understand that the legislative
body of Rome, known hereafter as the Senate, is composed of those
citizens who have held office through public election as described in
the "Guidelines and Structure" section of the Roman Handbook (or
formerly, upon achievement of high military award). This body is chaired
by those two Senators elected to the office of "Consul." Only the
Consuls, and to some extent the Imperator, may propagate
legislation in the assembly of the Senate. Only by a division (vote) of
the Senate and ratification by the elected non-Senate citizen
representative (the "Tribune of the Plebs") may new legislation be
adopted into law.
- I understand that my citizenship in Rome entitles me to various
rights under Roman Law. These are as outlined in the Mos Maiorum. In return for my
participation, my adherence to Roman Law and to my military oath, I may
expect assistance and instruction with combat training, armor
construction, and weapon construction. This assistance is extended by Rome
on behalf of all new citizens. In providing this assistance the time and
energy (and often money) of Rome's citizens are extended to bestow
numerous advantages upon a new citizen.
- In the past, numerous opportunists have undertaken to become Roman
citizens purely for the purpose of obtaining Rome's assistance and
instruction with items of a wargaming nature. Upon receiving this
instruction, these people then chose to forsake Rome, leaving with the
advantages that Roman citizenship had provided to them intact. These
advantages include not only armor, weapons, and costuming but training in
their construction and design representing years of development and
research. Relying upon the honor of said individuals has left Rome with no
legal recourse save violation of a loose verbal contract. This written
contract rectifies this problem:
- I understand that any item acquired or assembled by me or for me,
while a citizen of Rome, of a wargaming club nature will be forfeit to
Rome in the event my citizenship is either revoked or voluntarily
withdrawn by me. Items of a wargaming nature shall include all costuming,
armor, weapons, literature and all miscellaneous items designed
specifically for participation in a war gaming club.
- Rome retains the right to purchase items in forfeit from an
ex-citizen. The price for items in forfeit will be set by a special
assembly of the Roman Senate convened by a Consul or the Imperator. This
special assembly of the Senate will divide on the subject of purchasing
forfeit items from the ex-citizen. This special assembly of the Senate
will also be responsible for setting the price for forfeit items. The
Senate reserves the right to determine items purchased and the price of
said items on a case by case basis. The Senate agrees to consider material
expenses incurred by said ex-citizen while acquiring items in forfeit.
- This page is for those wishing to declare themselves a Citizen of
Rome. Do Not sign this page if you have not read and fully understood the
Mos Maiorum. Do
not sign this page if you have not read and fully understood paragraphs
one (1) through nine (9) of the "Roman Contract of Citizenship".
I, ______________, have fully read and fully understand the above
paragraphs numbered one (1) through ten (10) of the "Roman Contract
I, ______________, have read and fully understand the Mos Maiorum.
I, ______________, understand that by signing this agreement I become a
citizen of Rome.
I, ______________, do now sign this agreement and declare that in doing so
that I am a citizen of Rome. I further declare that any items of a war
gaming nature as defined above acquired or assembled by me or for me with
or without assistance from my fellow citizens of Rome will from this day
forward will be forfeit to Rome in the event my citizenship in Rome is
either revoked or voluntarily withdrawn.
Signature of witness:
Signature of Imperator:
APPENDIX II - SAMPLE ROMAN NAMES
Romans had lots of names. These
reflected on the number of families they were related to, an often
staggering number of lofty ancestors, or titles and alterations awarded as
honors by the state.
Resource Sites: A
list of EVERY historical Roman Consul
Naming Practices of Regal and Republican Rome!
Traditionally a man's name would
consist of one's personal name, the family name, and the family branch
name were given in that order. Historic example: Gaius Julius Caesar.
Gaius was his first name. His family was the Caesar branch of the Julian
House. Frequently the father and son's names would alternate from one
generation to the next for the firstborn. Women had only their family and
house name in feminine form. Very frequently a woman's name was a man's
made feminine by dropping the 'us' or 'ius' in favor of a 'ia' or an 'a'.
Women did not adopt their husband's family name after marriage. They kept
the feminine form of their father's name. Some examples are detailed at
In the case of adoption, the adopted
Roman changed his second and third names to that of his new family. His
old family name was added to the end to reflect his lineage. A
modification was added to reflect the adoption. The "...ius"
suffix was replaced with "...anus". For instance: Octavius
becomes Octavianus; Aurelius becomes Aurelianus.
Honors were bestowed in the form of
alterations for great military achievements. Sometimes a name will be
added for successful campaigns. For instance, in subduing the
Carthaginians under Hannibal, Scipio was awarded the name/title of "Africanus".
The Emperor Claudius' brother was given the title of "Germanicus"
for his glorious German campaign. So if your legion manages to route and
destroy the whole Gwynedd unit some lucky day, you'll be given the title
"Gwyneddicus" to add to the end of your name. Please do not
begin your persona with these alterations. They will be awarded for
outstanding and successful acts of valor for which you will all have an
Although we have many diverse
nationalities represented in our ranks, some of whom have pre-established
personas from their existing medievalist careers, I encourage you to take
on a Roman surname, if not a "battle name". Once you start or
join a noble Household, you will adopt a surname to go with your existing
name, and we'll do our best to refer to you that way as often as possible.
This helps promote unit identity, and helps outsiders to readily identify
you as a citizen of the Empire. Below are some Roman personal names that
you may feel free to choose from. For the sake of diction, please remember
that accents tend to fall on the second syllable, and all C's are hard
(i.e., pronounced like cat, not center) and all G's are hard (sounds like
get, not general).
Special Thanks to Reenactment
Legion XXIV for the following list of names!
Names currently in use are marked with
PRAENOMEN (First Names)
Amulius, Appius (associated with gens
Claudius), Aulus, Cassius, Decius, Flavius, Gaius* or Caius, Galerius,
Gallio, Gnaeus or Cnaeus, Julianus, Kaeso, Lucius, Manius, Marcus*,
Numerius, Oppius, Placus, Publius, Quintis, Quintus, Secundus, Servius,
Sextus, Spurius, Tertius, Tiberius*, Titus*, Vibius
NOMEN (Family Name)
Please go to Legion XXIV's website for a long list of COGNOMEN.
Patrician names are noted with in "quotes."
Female versions of these names end with an ia or a instead
of an a us or ius. For instance, Acilius
becomes Acilia and Claudius becomes Claudia.
Acilius, Aebutius, Aedinius, Albanus,
Allectus, Amatius, Antius, Antonius, Arminus, Arrius, Artorius,
Ateius, Atius, "Atilius", Atrius , Attius, Augustus, Aulus,
"Aurelius," Ausonius, Atronius, Avisius, Barrius, Blandius,
Bruccius, Bruttius, Calatorius, Calidius, Calpurnius , Calventius,
Calvinus, "Camillus," Caprenius, Carius, Caristanius, Cassianus,
Celatus, Cipius, "Claudius," "Clodius," Clovius,
Cluntius, Cominius, Cordius, "Cornelius"*, Cosconius,
Crispus, Curius, Curtius, Decumius, Desticius, Dexius, Didius,
Dillius, Dionysius, "Domitius," Dossenius, Drusus, Duccius,
Duronius, Egnatius, Epidius, Equitius, "Fabius,"
Fadius, Falerius, Faventinus, Favonius, Fenius, Festinius, Flaccus,
"Flavius," Flavinius, Flavonius, Floridius, Florius,
Floronius, Francus, Fulcinius, Fulvius, Fundanus, Gabinius, Galenus,
Galerius, Gallus, Gavius, Gellius, Germanicus, Granius, Gratus,
Gratidius, Helvetius , Helvius, Herennius, Herius, Herminius,
Horatius, Hortensius, Hosidius , Hostilius, Inventius, Iulius,
"Julius," Junius*, Justis, Justus, Juventius, Laetonius ,
Lafrenius, Lampronius, Liburnius, Licinius, Ligustinius, "Livius,"
Lollius, Longinus, Loreius, Lucius, Lucilius, Lusius, Macrinus,
Maecilius, Maelius, Mallius, Mamilius, "Manlius", Manilius,
Marcius - Marius, Matius, Maximius, Memmius, Mercurius,
Messienus, Metilius, Milonius, Minucius , Modius, Mucius, Munatius, Munius
, Murrius, Naevius, Nasennius, Nemetorius, Nepius, Nigidius,
Nigilius , Nipius, Norbanus, Novius, Numerius, Octobre, Olcinius, Oppius,
Opsius, Oranius, Otacilius, Papellius, "Papinius," "Papirius,"
Papius, Peltrasius, Pescennius, Petellius, Petilius, Petillius, Petreius,
Petronius, "Pinarus," Piscius, Pisentius, Placidus,
Plautius, Plinius , Plotius, Pollius, Pomponius, Pomptinus,
Pontidius, Pontius*, Popidius , Portius, "Postumius", Paesentius,
Publicus, Pupius, Quintilius, Quintius, "Quirinius,"
Rabirius, Rufius , Rufinus, Rufrius, Rufus, Rusonius, "Rutilius."
Sabucius, Sacerdus, Sallustius, Salonius, Salvius, Scipio,
Scribonius , Secundinius, Secundius, Seius, "Sempronius,"
Sennius, Sentius, Septimius, Sepunius, Sepurcius, "Sergius,"
"Servilius," Sestius , Sextilius, Sextius, Sidonius,
Silius , Sittius, Socellius, Sornatius, Spurius, Statius, Statlilius,
Stertinius, Suedius, "Sulpicius, Tadius, Talmudius, Tanicius,
Tertinius, Tetius, Titius, Titinius, Trebatius, Trebellius,
Tremellius, Tuccius, Tullius , Ulpianus, Ulpius, Umbrenius, Urgulanius,
Uulius, Vagionius, Vagnius, "Valerius"*, Valgus, Varius, Vassinus,
Vatinius, Vedius*, Velius, Velvus, Veranius, Verecundius, Vergilius, Verus,
Vesnius, Vesuvius, Vibenius, Vibidius, Victricius, Viducius,
Vinicius, Vipsanius, Viridius , Virius, Vitruvius, Volcatius, Volumnius,
and so on and so forth...
APPENDIX III - SAMPLE BALLOT
The Praetor and the Quaestor shall preside, splitting the Patricians apart
from the Equestrians and Plebeians. Provide two pens and ballot boxes for
the vote. The Praetor and Quaestor distribute the ballots. Only the
Plebeian/Equestrian group may vote for Tribune of the Plebs.
The Praetor and Quaestor shall sufficiently stir then open
the ballot boxes when all votes have been cast. The votes will be tallied.
In the case of a draw, some alternate method of deciding may be selected.
There shall be two Consuls, one Senior Consul (with the majority of votes)
and the other Junior Consul. The winners shall be announced and the
Pontifex Maximus shall administer the Oaths of Office to the new
Magistrates and Tribune.
Please check the candidate for each position that you feel is the most
qualified to serve. Remember that the Officials you select are responsible
for maintaining the auctoritas and dignitas of Rome. The privacy of your
vote is sacred and you cannot be compelled to discuss your decisions with
your fellow citizens.
Cæcilius Metellus Pius
(Lord Of The Games & proposed events)
(Keg Party & Ski Trip)
Cæsar (Campout & Skydiving)
Aemilianus Paullus (Horse Riding & Wine Tasting)
Plebeians and Equestrians may vote for the:TRIBUNE
OF THE PLEBS
Caecilius Metellus Pius
Date of Birth:
ROMAN PERSONA NAME:
Is there any
of the above information you do not want published?
you (invited you to join)?